Written by Administrator   
Tuesday, 13 January 2009

ImageCommunity Development
Community development is a bottom-up or grassroots approach to development.  In this approach, all members of a community participate and take responsibility for improving their lives and their world.  Community development is a process that allows people to decide for themselves what they need and what they are capable of, then to implement a collective plan of action, and to monitor and evaluate the results.

Image(Human) Development
Since the end of World War II, development had been focused on national economic growth.  However, by the 1980s, it was recognised that development is not about income.  It is about increasing wellbeing.  It is about “the richness of human life, rather than the richness of the economy” (Amartya Sen).  This means creating an environment that allows people to live satisfying lives and gives them a choice about how they live their lives.  To do this, people need knowledge, health, security, political freedom, and an opportunity to participate in community and cultural activities.  In 1986, the United Nations made the right to development explicit in the Declaration on the Right to Development (  In 1990, the UN created its Human Development Index (HDI) and began publishing the Human Development Reports to report on the status of human development (

ImageEqual opportunity
Equal opportunity is an approach that ensures that people are not excluded from or deprived of social benefits such as education, employment, health care, and so on, on the grounds of sex, race, religious belief and so on.  An equal opportunity approach encourages practices that ensure fairness, equal treatment and respect.  Further, equal opportunity measures provide an enabling environment and conditions to enable people to obtain equal status.

ImageMillenium Development Goals (MDGs)
In September 2000, world leaders gathered at the United Nations to adopt the UN Millennium Development Goals.  The eight goals commit their nations to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensure environmental sustainability and improve access to adequate housing, water and sanitation; and develop a global partnership for development (  The deadline for achieving these goals is 2015.

ImageSustainable Development
Sustainable development is “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (1987 Brundtland Report).  It is about intragenerational and intergenerational equity in access to resources.  Intragenerational equity means equity between today’s inhabitants of the earth, where intergenerational equity is about equal access to resources for future generations.  This requires “models of material production and consumption that are replicable and desirable” (UNDP HDR 1994).  Sustainable development is generally considered in terms of economic and environmental sustainability, but it is also about social sustainability. 




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