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Field Detail
Theme Population and Development
Code PD-EDU-1.8
MDG code MDG-3.1.3
Sub-theme Education
Name Ratio of girls to boys in tertiary education (MDG.3.1.3)
Definition Ratio of girls to boys (gender parity index) in tertiary education is the ratio of the number of female students enrolled at tertiary level of education to the number of male students in this level. To standardise the effects of the population structure of the appropriate age groups, the Gender Parity Index (GPI) of the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) for each level of education is used. The GER is the number of pupils enrolled in a given level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population in the theoretical age group for the same level of education.
Calculation/Formula Female tertiary education gross enrolment rate / Male tertiary education gross enrolment rate *100
Range (eg Age) Tertiary level education. 5 year age group immediately following end of secondary education)
Assumptions To calculate the Gross Enrolment Ratio one must first determine the population of official school age for each level of education by reference to the theoretical starting ages and durations of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED97) Level 1 (primary education) and Levels 2 and 3 (secondary education) as reported by the country. The population of the official age for tertiary education is the 5-year age group immediately following the end of secondary education. Then, the number of pupils or students enrolled in each level of education is divided by the population of official school age for that level of education, and the result is multiplied by 100. The Gross Enrolment Ratios for males and females are calculated separately. The Gender Parity Index (GPI) is then calculated by dividing the female Gross Enrolment Ratio by the male Gross Enrolment Ratio for the given level of education. This method requires information on the structure of education (i.e. theoretical entrance age and duration of ISCED97 Level 1 and Levels 2 and 3), enrolments in each level of education and the populations of the age-groups corresponding to the given levels of education. Separate figures for males and females are required.
Limitations A GPI of 1 (or 100 as displayed here) indicates parity between the sexes; a GPI that varies between 0 and 1 (or 0 and 100 as displayed here) typically means a disparity in favour of males; whereas a GPI greater than 1 (or as 100 displayed here) indicates a disparity in favour of females. The indicator is an imperfect measure of the accessibility of schooling for girls because it does not allow a determination of whether improvements in the ratio reflect increases in girls’ school enrolment (desirable) or decreases in boys’ enrolment (undesirable). It also does not show whether the overall level of participation in education is low or high.
Purpose/Rationale Measures access to basic education in terms of gender parity
Policy Linkages National Development Plans, National Sustainable Development Frameworks, National Gender policies, MDGs
Preferred Data Sources MOE digests
Primary Data Collection System National Administrative Database - Education Information Management Systems (EMIS)
Frequency of Data Collection Annual
Other agencies countries_ must report to: UNESCO
SPC Responsibility - Data Management SDP
SPC Programme SDP
Numerator Female gross enrolment rate tertiary education
Component 1 Female GER - Total number of females enrolled in tertiary education / Total female population of official tertiary age (5 year age group immediately following end of secondary education) x 100
Component 2 Male GER - Total number of males enrolled in tertiary education / Total male population of official tertiary age (5 year age group immediately following end of secondary education) x 100
Denominator Male gross enrolment rate in tertiary education (See 'Numerator Component 2')
Factor *100
Other Metadata Link http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Metadata.aspx