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Field Detail
Theme Human Development
Code HD-GEN-1.11
MDG code MDG-3.2
Sub-theme Gender
Name Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector (MDG.3.2))
Definition The share of female wage earners and salaried employees, or "persons in paid employment jobs " in the industry and service sectors expressed as a percentage of total wage employment in those same sectors. 100% indicates equality
Calculation/Formula Number of women in paid employment in non-agricultural sector / Total number of persons in paid employment in the non-agricultural sector x 100
Unit of Measure %
Range (eg Age) 15+ years
Assumptions That information is correctly reported in a census or survey
Limitations In many countries (especially developing countries), non-agricultural wage employment represents only a small portion of total employment. As a result the contribution of women to the national economy is underestimated and therefore misrepresented. The indicator is difficult to interpret, unless additional information is available on the share of women in total employment, which would allow an assessment to be made of whether women are under- or over-represented in non-agricultural wage employment. The indicator does not reveal any differences in the quality of the different types of non-agricultural wage employment (that apply also to all jobs), regarding earnings, conditions of work, or the legal and social protection, which they offer. The indicator cannot reflect whether women are able to reap the economic benefits of such employment, either. It should be noted that the extent of female employment of any kind tends to be underreported in all kinds of surveys. In addition, the employment share of the agricultural sector, for both men and women, is severely underreported
Intended Direction of change Increase
Purpose/Rationale The indicator shows the extent to which women have access to paid employment, which will affect their integration into the monetary economy. It also indicates the degree to which labour markets are open to women in industry and services sectors which affects not only equal employment opportunity for women, but also economic efficiency through flexibility of the labour market and the economy’s capacity to adapt to changes over time.
Policy Linkages National development plans
Preferred Data Sources Census
Alternative_Data Sources HIES, labour force and household surveys
Census - HIES - DHS tag Census
Primary Data Collection System Survey - National Statistics Office
Frequency of Data Collection 5-10 years
SPC Responsibility - Data Management SDP
Comments / Regional Trend Analysis Standard definition of labour force and economic activities not applied from census to census or survey to census, etc
Means of Verification (outside NSO system) Labour and Employment Departments
SPC Programme HDP
Numerator Number of women in paid employment in non-agricultural sector
Denominator Total number of persons in paid employment in the non-agricultural sector
Factor x 100
Unit %
Other Metadata Link http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Metadata.aspx