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Field Detail
Theme Health
Code PH-VS-1.2
MDG code MDG-4.2
Sub-theme Vital Statistics
Name Infant mortality rate (MDG 4.2)
Definition Indicator refers to number of infant deaths (babies/children less than 1 year of age) per 1,000 live births during specific time period.
Calculation/Formula (Deaths of children aged < 1 year / total live births for same period)* 1000
Unit of Measure Deaths per 1,000 live births
Range (eg Age) Children aged <1 year of age
Assumptions Totals are more useful than M/F data as there is little difference in exposures/ causes of death in these young age groups. IMR by sex (M/F) may be required as an input for calculation of life expectancy (LE)
Limitations Should be measured over 3 -5 year aggregate periods with 95% confidence intervals to minimise instability due to the small number of events. An alternative for PICT’s with small populations is to report annual raw numbers each year with rates used periodically for comparison (3-5 years)
Purpose/Rationale The second of two key mortality indicators providing important description of health status of countries / communities. Countries (populations) with low IMR values usually experience overall higher levels of social and economic development. Important to measure/track health sector development (maternal/child health; water supply and sanitation; nutrition activities).
Policy Linkages MDG and National Development plans
Preferred Data Sources National Vital Registration System - (which has been verified for completeness) or National Health Information System
Alternative_Data Sources Indirectly: from censuses/ surveys (questions on infants deaths in last 12 months, and application of life‐table analysis). Census and HH surveys (5‐10 year intervals).
Census - HIES - DHS tag Census/DHS
Primary Data Collection System National Administrative Database - Health Information Management Systems (HIS)
Frequency of Data Collection Annual (aggregated over multiple years) if from vital registration data/ 5-10 years if from Census
Other agencies countries_ must report to: CHIPS
SPC Responsibility - Data Management SDP
Comments / Regional Trend Analysis As countries improve vital statistics and civil registration systems, there may be some increases in published measures of mortality (such as IMR) due to improvements in reporting rather than a true increase in mortality rate. Care must be taken in inter
SPC Programme PHD
Numerator (Deaths of children aged < 1 year
Denominator Total live births for same period
Factor x 1000
Other Metadata Link http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Metadata.aspx