New Caledonia (18,576 km²) is a French
Dependency dominated by one large main island (16,192 km², 1639m), with one
small island (Île des Pins) and the three Loyalty Islands.
Extensive fruit fly trapping and host fruit surveying was done in New Caledonia by Paul Cochereau between 1965 and 1970 under ORSTOM.
Further surveys were done by C. Pinson in 1990-91, under CIRAD, followed by limited
activities until 1993. The major ongoing fruit fly programme in New Caledonia was however
initiated in 1994. The programme is funded by New Caledonia Territory Department of
Agriculture and executed by CIRAD-FLHOR (now under the Institut Agronomique
The fruit fly research facility is located at Pocquereux Research Station. For more
Mr. Rémy Amice, Service Vétérinaire et de la Protection des
Direction de l'Économie Rurale
BP 256, 98848, Nouméa, Nouvelle-Calédonie.
(687) 243745. Fax: (687) 251112.
non-hosts to fruit flies in New Caledonia
Watermelon is exported to New Zealand on this basis
FRUIT FLY SPECIES:
There are twelve
species of Dacinae, four of which are of economic
importance. Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) was introduced into New Caledonia from Australia around
or shortly before 1969. Bactrocera psidii
is a species endemic to New Caledonia and the second worst pest fruit fly in the
Territory, after Queensland fruit fly. Bactrocera
curvipennis used to be New Caledonia's main pest species until the introduction of
Queensland fruit fly. It is endemic to New Caledonia. Breadfruit fly (Bactrocera umbrosa) is
widespread and common in New Caledonia. Bactrocera mucronis
(Drew), is a minor pest restricted to New Caledonia, that has been recorded from guava,
tropical almond, and from Cerbera manghas. Males come to Cue-lure. There are seven
additional less common species, all restricted to New Caledonia, that breed on wild forest
hosts. Species attracted to Cue-lure include B. caledoniensis
(Drew), the dominant species on Maré, B. aneuvittata
(Drew), B. fulvifacies (Perkins), and B. perpusilla (Drew). Methyl eugenol traps collect B. ebenea (Drew), the dominant species on Lifou, and weakly
attracts B. paraxanthodes Drew and Hancock. One
species found only on Maré, B. grandistylus Drew and
Hancock, is not attracted to male lure. There is also one species of
Trypetinae, Dirioxa pornia (Walker), that attacks damaged or fallen
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF
FRUIT FLIES: The three main
polyphagous pest species are B.
tryoni, B. psidii and B. curvipennis. B.
umbrosa is a pest of breadfruit and jackfruit.
Established and maintained a laboratory for fruit fly rearing and undertaking heat tolerance studies,
and a facility for holding
fruit samples collected in the field, at Pocquereux
Research Station. 2. Established permanent trapping
sites on three islands of New Caledonia. Trap sites made up of one trap baited with methyl
eugenol, one with Cue-lure and one with trimedlure. 3. Collected and held in the laboratory for adult fly
emergence 1307 commercial/edible and wild/forest fruit samples. 4.
Determined that there are twelve species of fruit flies (Tephritidae: Dacinae) in New
Caledonia and compiled host ranges for all species. Used this data as the basis for
negotiations on quarantine protocols for export of fruits and vegetables.
Pest status: 5. Confirmed that four
species are of economic importance B. tryoni, B. psidii, B.
curvipennis and B. umbrosa.
Quarantine surveillance: 6. Modified the
initial fauna surveys into an early warning system as part of New Caledonia's overall
quarantine surveillance system. Trapping focused on high-risk locations, such as tourist
resorts, urban areas, educational institutions for overseas students, markets, farming
areas, diplomatic missions and ports of entry.
Laboratory colonies: 8. Established
laboratory colonies of B. tryoni, B. psidii, B. curvipennis and
B. umbrosa. 9. Completed studies on
the life cycles and rates of development of the reared species in artificial diet.
Host status and export markets: 10. Used
the laboratory and field tests to determine non-host status for fruits and vegetables
developed by the RMFFP and the New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF)
Regulatory Authority. 11. Exported
watermelon, squash and limes to New Zealand under non-host status quarantine treatment.
Values of exports in 1998 were 233,000 NZD for watermelon, 89.000 NZD for lime and 54,000
NZD for squash.
Heat treatments and export markets: 12.
Generated and published data on the heat tolerances of early and late eggs, first instar
and feeding and non-feeding third instars for B. tryoni, B. curvipennis
and B. psidii, and had these data accepted by New Zealand. This research was
technically supported by Hort + Research New Zealand. Generated data on
cold tolerance for the three species. 13.
Developed treatment for mango, eggplant and capsicum using forced hot air and submitted research
reports to New Zealand MAF for approval of the treatment. Quarantine treatment uses forced
hot air to raise the core temperature of the largest fruit placed in the coolest spot in
the chamber, determined by thermal mapping, to 47°C and hold it at that temperature for
20 minutes before hydro-cooling. For capsicum, the treatment specifications
are 43°C for 3 hours and 30 minutes.
Development of National expertise: 14.
Published in the ACIAR Proceedings No. 76 of the Symposium on the Management of Fruit
Flies in the Pacific, four scientific papers on fruit flies in New Caledonia and published
a Pest Advisory Leaflet on Fruit Flies in New Caledonia, published in French
and in English. 15. Provided training to farmers and exporters and
government personnel of New Caledonia on the importance of fruit flies to production and
national quarantine, identification, control methods, and quarantine treatments.16.
Entomologist attended a one week attachment training in SPC Nabua and
Koronivia Research Station from the 2nd to 6th August 2004 on fruit fly and
parasitoids rearing techniques.
Emergency response planning: 17.
Increased preparedness to detect quickly an incursion of an exotic fruit fly species and
formulated an Emergency Response Plan to eradicate any introduction of a new unwanted
QUARANTINE SURVEILLANCE (as of October 2007): There are
55 trapping sites, each with one Cue-lure, one methyl eugenol and one trimed
lure trap, on the main island (55 sites around Nouméa, on Maré (5 sites) and on Lifou (4 sites).
of the following commodities are regularly collected for quarantine surveillance:
citrus fruits, guava and mango, . There are
fruit fly posters and quarantine bins at the airport. In flight videos are
played to incoming flights about quarantine awareness.
Amice, R., Sales, F. 1997.
Fruit fly fauna in New Caledonia. pp.68-76
in: Allwood, A.J., and Drew, R.A I., Management of fruit flies in the Pacific. ACIAR
Proceedings No 76. 267pp.
1993. Programme de lutte contre les mouches des fruits. pp. 29-33 in: Rapports
d'activités 1992-93 / CIRAD-FLHOR, Nouvelle-Calédonie.
Anonymous. 1994. Le programme de lutte contre les
mouches des fruits. pp. 44-58 in: Rapports d'activités 1994 / CIRAD-FLHOR,
Anonymous. 1996. Le programme de lutte contre les
mouches des fruits. pp. 45-62 in: Rapports d'activités 1995-96 / CIRAD-FLHOR,
Anonymous. 1997. Le programme de lutte contre les
mouches des fruits. pp. 32-47 in: Rapports d'activités 1996-97 / CIRAD-FLHOR,
Anonymous. 1998. Le programme de lutte contre les
mouches des fruits. pp. 37-46 in: Rapports d'activités 1997-98 / CIRAD-FLHOR,
Anonymous. 1999. Le programme de lutte contre les
mouches des fruits. pp. 34-53 in: Rapports d'activités 1998-99 / CIRAD-FLHOR,
Anonymous. 2000. Le programme de lutte contre les
mouches des fruits. pp. 44-60 in: Rapports d'activités 2000 / CIRAD-FLHOR,
Anonymous, 2001. Import risk analysis (IRA) for the
importation of Tahitian limes from New Caledonia. Biosecurity Australia.
Technical Issues Paper. 60pp.
Cochereau, P. 1966. Essais de lutte biologique contre
les mouches des fruits en Nouvelle Calédonie. Centre ORSTOM
de Nouméa. 4pp. Multigraph.
Cochereau, P. 1966. Les mouches des fruits en Nouvelle
Calédonie. Centre ORSTOM de Nouméa. 14pp. Multigraph.
Cochereau, P. 1970. Les mouches des fruits et leurs parasites dans la zone
Indo-Austrtalia-Pacifique et particulièrement en Nouvelle Calédonie. Cahiers ORSTOM, Série
Leblanc, L., Amice, R. 2000. Fruit
flies in New Caledonia. SPC Pest Advisory Leaflet. Draft. 3pp. (Also translated in
LeMontey, J.M. and F.
Mademba-Sy. 1994. The fruit fly research programme in New Caledonia. Fruits. 49:
Qapitro, J. 1998.
Emergency response plan for fruit flies [New Caledonia]. Draft. 10pp.
Sales, F. 1998. Les mouches des fruits dans les
territoires de Nouvelle-Calédonie et de Wallis et Futuna. Fruits. 53: 41-56.
Waterhouse, D.F. 1993. Pest fruit flies in the Oceanic
Pacific. pp. 4-47 in: Biological
control. Pacific Prospects. Supplement 2. ACIAR Monograph No 20. viiii+138pp.
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