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Pilot site

Activities to be implemented are primarily located in North Efate, but some activities may also be undertaken at the national level. The site covers the 2 existing networks of marine protected areas in North Efate: Tasi-Vanua and Nguna-Pele. It begins at the edge of the village Mangaliliu and ends with the village of Epao (included) covering a distance of 45 km, and includes the islands of Nguna, Pele, Lelepa, Emao and Moso.


The activities presented below are those anticipated prior to the cyclone and do not account for its impacts: this is still work in progress.

Particular attention is paid to coherence and synergy with policies and actions from the different administrations and departments of the Government of Vanuatu and local authorities in North Efate. Close cooperation with other ICM-related projects operating in Vanuatu in general and North Efate in particular is also requested from the operator.

Component 1: Integrated coastal management

1.1. ICM planning

The operator supports participatory planning processes at three different levels. It:

  • Supports the development of, or strengthen, village-level and site-specific natural resources management plans;
  • Supports the development of Tasi Vanua and Nguna Pele Marine and Land Protected Areas networks management plans;
  • Develops, in cooperation with the Departments of Environment and Fisheries, an ICM plan for North Efate, as provided for by the National ICM Framework and implementation strategy and following SPC’s guidelines on ICM plans. The ICM plan will strengthen and bring coherence into the various existing local and sectoral (forestry, fisheries, waste management…) management plans, placing particular emphasis on land-sea interactions;

The operator also supports the establishment, if necessary and as appropriate, of a North Efate ICM Committee or any other participatory arena that will be deemed necessary in complement to existing fora.

1.2. Management activities

The operator prepares and supports the implementation of the ICM plan and its sub-components. This includes:

  • Sustainable fisheries: Implementation of the Trochus and sea cucumbers fishery management plans in North Efate, as well as activities related to fin fishing community-based management.
  • Invasive species: plants (e.g. creeping vines), crown of thorns starfish, rats…
  • Ecological restoration and rehabilitation: mangroves, watersheds, coastal vegetation, water catchment areas…
  • Waste management: promotion of compost, designation of waste disposal sites, small-scale recycling technologies, development of simple and realistic waste management plans, etc.
  • Community-based protected areas: map existing Tasi Vanua and Nguna Pele Marine and Land Protected Areas networks, assess status, support new MPAs…

1.3. Adaptation to climate change

As part and/or complement to the ICM plan and activities, and in coherence with the forthcoming National Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction Policy, the operator (i) synthetizes existing knowledge about expected local climate change impacts; (ii) clarifies and improves the contribution of identified ICM activities to climate change adaptation; (iii) identifies and implements, in collaboration with local authorities and stakeholders, other activities contributing effectively to climate change adaptation. In particular, the operator collaborates with the SPC-GIZ CCCPIR project in North Efate, and makes proposals to implement joint activities.

1.4. Capacity building

In synergy with management activities, a capacity building plan is developed and implemented to support and sustain the project outcomes.

For example there will most likely be a need to build capacity of the Tasi-Vanua and Nguna Pele Networks’ key stakeholders to better understand and implement the five most important legislations for ICM in North Efate – Fisheries Act, Forestry Act, Environment Act, Land Act and the Foreshore Act. Specific emphasis is placed on better compliance with and enforcement of environmental law, which are crucial means towards more integrated coastal management in Vanuatu.

1.5. Alternative income generating activities

To the extent that they contribute to more integrated coastal management in North Efate, the operator may support alternative income generating activities such as:

  • Development of eco-tourism activities (nature trails, underwater paths, guided tours…);
  • Business development for small-scale, sustainable fin fishing (operators, wholesalers, transportation, ice machines etc.).

Component 2: Economic analysis

The operator identifies and carries out, in agreement with relevant stakeholders and decision-makers, economic analyses in support of components 1 and 3.

Component 3: Economic and financial mechanisms

The operator identifies economic and financial mechanisms that are appropriate to support ICM activities:

  • On a sustainable basis;
  • In addition to and in coherence with existing mechanisms (e.g. taxes, conservation agreements, trust fund…);
  • At North Efate scale (e.g. marine conservation agreements), or Efate island scale, or national scale (e.g. tourism taxes, trust fund).

The feasibility study includes among others: funding needs; potential payers; technical, economic, financial, political feasibility; conditions of success. Specific attention will be paid to the way these mechanisms integrate within existing financial transfers: subventions, taxes, grants, exemptions, etc., which will therefore be examined during the feasibility study.

In addition the operator realizes a thorough study on existing harmful subsidies – if any – to the ecosystems and biodiversity in the North Efate (sources, volumes, objectives, and impacts), taking stock of methodologies developed by the OECD and the European Union. The operator identifies such subsidies and suggests solutions to reduce or eliminate their impacts.

Based on the results from the feasibility study, the selected mechanism(s) will be implemented and its / their impacts monitored.