Field Detail
Theme Health
Code PH-SXH-1.2
Sub-theme Sexual Health (HIV/AIDS & STI)
Name HIV/AIDS prevalence among pregnant women
Definition Proportion of women who test positive for HIV as a percentage of all women receiving antenatal care in specific age categories
Calculation/Formula Number of antenatal clinic attendees tested whose HIV test results are positive / Number of antenatal clinic attendees tested for their HIV infection status x 100
Unit of Measure %
Limitations In countries where the age at which young people first have sexual intercourse is late and/or levels of contraception use are high, HIV prevalence among pregnant women of 15–24 years of age will differ from that among all women in the age group. This indicator (using data from antenatal clinics) gives a fairly good estimate of relatively recent trends in HIV infection in locations where the epidemic is heterosexually driven. It is less reliable as an indicator of HIV-epidemic trends in locations where most infections remain temporarily confined to key populations. To supplement data from antenatal clinics, an increasing number of countries have included HIV testing in population-based surveys. If a country has produced HIV prevalence estimates from survey data these estimates should be included in the comments box for this indicator to allow for comparisons between multiple surveys. Survey based estimates should be disaggregated by sex. The addition of new sentinel sites will increase the samples representativeness and will therefore give a more robust point estimate of HIV prevalence. However, the addition of new sentinel sites reduces the comparability of values. As such it is important to use consistent sites when undertaking trend analyses.
Purpose/Rationale Pregnant women are a core population to monitor rates of STIs including HIV, as they are routinely offered diagnostic testing during antenatal care. Identification of STIs and HIV infection during pregnancy is critical for prevention of complications such as congenital syphilis, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. It measures progress towards reducing HIV infection. The goal in the response to HIV is to reduce HIV infection. At older ages, changes in HIV prevalence are slow to reflect changes in the rate of new infections (HIV incidence) because the average duration of infection is long. Furthermore, declines in HIV prevalence can reflect saturation of infection among those individuals who are most vulnerable and rising mortality rather than behaviour change. At young ages, trends in HIV prevalence are a better indication of recent trends in HIV incidence and risk behaviour. Thus, reductions in HIV incidence associated with genuine behaviour change should first become detectable in trends in HIV prevalence figures for 15–24 years old (or even earlier in 15-19-year-olds if this age breakdown is available). Where available, parallel behavioural surveillance survey data should be used to aid interpretation of trends in HIV prevalence.
Policy Linkages Pacific Regional Strategy on HIV and other STIs and Implementation Plan 2009-2013
Preferred Data Sources National Health Information System (Administrative Data)
Alternative_Data Sources WHO/SPC Annual Surveillance System, Global Fund Program
Primary Data Collection System National Administrative Database - Health Information Management Systems (HIS)
Frequency of Data Collection Annual
Other agencies countries_ must report to: UNAIDS/UNGASS
SPC Responsibility - Data Management PHD
SPC Programme PHD
Numerator Number of antenatal clinic attendees tested whose HIV test results are positive
Denominator Number of antenatal clinic attendees tested for their HIV infection status
Factor x 100
Unit %