In the PILNA 2018 study, teachers were asked about their confidence in teaching specific aspects of literacy and numeracy. Their responses are important to help education systems design their teachers' professional development plans.
The teaching of writing skills were found to be particularly challenging for teachers. 60% of the teachers were confident to teach writing organisation and structure. The writing aspect that teachers felt the least confident to teach was the composition of quality ideas or information. Only 56% of the teachers expressed confidence to teach this.